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Software that automatically displays or downloads advertising material
such as banners or pop-ups when a user is online.

Software which is specifically designed to disrupt or damage a computer
system. Similar to adware.

a type of malicious software designed to block access to a computer system, usually via high level encryption, until a sum of money is paid.

Software that enables a user to obtain covert information about another's
computer activities by transmitting data covertly from their hard drive.

A piece of code which is capable of copying itself and typically has a
detrimental effect, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.

Software which exploits a previously unknown vulnerability in a computer
application or operating system. Also called zero-hour or day zero.